It’s a collection of instruction of instruction written in a language understandable by a machine to do a particular task solving a specific type of problem. Without a program computers are useless.
A programmer is a computer professional skilled in using programming languages to create executable and acceptable computer programs their jobs usually involves coding, debugging, documentation, integration,. Programmers work with system analyst on bigger projects.
We use programming languages to write a source code which you eventually need to convert it into machine language which a computer can understand it
We have two way to do this:
is to translate a program written in high-level programming languages from source code into object code. This is done using a compiler. A compiler goes through the whole source code and transform it into complete machine code program to do the required function
is a program that executes instructions written in high level languages, it reads the source code line at a time, converts this instruction and executes it. You should be very careful not to confuse between the two, compiler and the interpreter.
Programming is the art of designing and developing executable computer programs to attain a specific computing result with the help of selected programming languages by a programmer. It is a skill whose quality is tested by the quality of the resulting software.
Computer programming entails the following processes:
Identifying the problem
This is first step in programming get to know what the problem is
There are commonly two ways of planning a solution to a task drawing a flowchart and writing a pseodocode, a flowchart is a representation of a series of steps of a solution to a problem. It consists of arrows and symbols.
Pseodocode is nonstandard language that allows you to state your solution with more precision, pseodocode is not executable on the computer
This is expressing the solution in a programming language. You will translate the logic from the pseodocode or flowchart or some other tool. Programmers use a text editor to write there code.
Most programs are written correctly by the programmers but some contain a few errors. After coding the program you must prepare to test it on compute this involves the following steps:
Documenting is writing the description of the program and its specific facts about it. Maintaining the program is regular or routine check of the program to detect changes and make updates.
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A database is a well-organized collection of data that are related in a meaningful way, which can be accessed in different logical orders. It stores data that serves the needs of multiple users within one or more organizations.
A DBMS is used to create, maintain and access a database.
Advantages of databases
It is a program that sets up and controls the structure of a database and access to the data. Example of DBMS software’s are:
This model organizes data into tree like structure, with single origin to which all other data is linked. The hierarchy starts from root data adding up like a tree.
In this model data organization is more like a graph it is the extension of the above model. Data in this model data is more related since more relations hips are created.
Most widely used form of database, data is organized into related tables each table containing rows and columns. Rows are called record and the columns are called fields for example
In this model, relationships are attained by dividing objects into entity and characteristics into attributes. This model is defined to represent relationships in pictorial form for easier understanding by different stakeholders.
It is a specialized way of collecting organizing retrieving and storing data in a manner that we can perform operations on data effectively.
It is the is an abstraction representation of logical view of the whole database. It shows how data is organized and how they are related and associated among themselves.