Programming and database assignment

Programming and database introduction

It’s a collection of instruction of instruction written in a language understandable by a machine to do a particular task solving a specific type of problem. Without a program computers are useless.

A programmer is a computer professional skilled in using programming languages to create  executable and acceptable computer programs their jobs usually involves coding, debugging, documentation, integration,. Programmers work with system analyst on bigger projects.

Programming languages and databases

This are artificial languages created to be used in making coded instruction on the computer for later execution. They are composed of rules (syntax) that define the meaning of expression written in the language. Every languages comes with its compiler i.e. interpreter. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages such as BASIC, C, C++, C#, RADA, Python, Java, and JavaScript.

We use programming languages to write a source code which you eventually need to convert it into machine language which a computer can understand it

We have two way to do this:

  • Compile the program
  • Interpret the program

Compiling in programming and database

is to translate a program written in high-level programming languages from source code into object code. This is done using a compiler. A compiler goes through the whole source code and transform it into complete machine code program to do the required function

Interpreter in programming and database

is a program that executes instructions written in high level languages, it reads the source code line at a time, converts this instruction and executes it. You should be very careful not to confuse between the two, compiler and the interpreter.

Programming and database assignment

Programming is the art of designing and developing executable computer programs to attain a   specific computing result with the help of selected programming languages by a programmer. It is a skill whose quality is tested by the quality of the resulting software.

Computer programming entails the following processes:

  • Identifying the  problem
  • Designing the solution
  • Writing the code
  • Testing the program
  • Documenting and maintaining the source code

Identifying the problem

This is first step in programming get to know what the problem is

Designing the solution and the database

There are commonly two ways of planning a solution to a task drawing a flowchart and writing a pseodocode, a flowchart is a representation of a series of steps of a solution to a problem. It consists of arrows and symbols.

Pseodocode is nonstandard language that allows you to state your solution with more precision, pseodocode is not executable on the computer

Writing the programming code

This is expressing the solution in a programming language. You will translate the logic from the pseodocode or flowchart or some other tool. Programmers use a text editor to write there code.

Testing the program

Most programs are written correctly by the programmers but some contain a few errors. After coding the program you must prepare to test it on compute this involves the following steps:

  • Desk-checking. This step is similar to proofreading it is the process of reading through the whole code this will help you identify some errors and may save you time at the end
  • Translating. This is checking the syntax of your program to make sure the programming language was used correctly.
  • Debugging. This is process of detecting, locating, and correcting mistakes (bugs) by running the program.

Documenting and maintaining the program and database

Documenting is writing the description of the program and its specific facts about it. Maintaining the program is regular or routine check of the program to detect changes and make updates.

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programming and database
programming and database

Database assignment and overview

A database is a well-organized collection of data that are related in a meaningful way, which can be accessed in different logical orders. It stores data that serves the needs of multiple users within one or more organizations.

Simplified view of database

Programming and database assignment help
Programming and database assignment

A DBMS is used to create, maintain and access a database.

Advantages of databases

  • Reduce redundancy(repetition of data)-unit record kept and used in many areas
  • Due to above, information in databases is consider to have more integrity-they are more likely to be accurate and up to date.
  • There is improved data security

Database management system (DBMS)

It is a program that sets up and controls the structure of a database and access to the data. Example of DBMS software’s are:

  • Microsoft access,
  • MS SQL server,
  • Corel paradox,
  • Oracle,
  • MySQL,
  • And many others.

Advantages of database management system

  1. Reduced data inconsistency-Different versions of the same data showing up in different places will be minimized
  2. Improved data integration-access to properly managed data promotes integrated view of operations in an organization.
  3. Improved data sharing-DBMS creates an environment which user access more and well managed data better it makes respond to changes easier
  4. Improved data security-DBMS enforces data privacy and security policies by providing a proper frame work
  5. Enables better decision making-well managed and better access generate better quality information enabling better decision making

DBMS database models

Hierarchical model

This model organizes data into tree like structure, with single origin to which all other data is linked. The hierarchy starts from root data adding up like a tree.

Network model

In this model data organization is more like a graph it is the extension of the above model. Data in this model data is more related since more relations hips are created.

Relational model

Most widely used form of database, data is organized into related tables each table containing rows and columns. Rows are called record and the columns are called fields for example

Programming and database assignment help
Programming and database assignment help

Entity relationship model

In this model, relationships are attained by dividing objects into entity and characteristics into attributes. This model is defined to represent relationships in pictorial form for easier understanding by different stakeholders.

Data structures

It is a specialized way of collecting organizing retrieving and storing data in a manner that we can perform operations on data effectively.

Database schema

 It is the is an abstraction representation of logical view of the whole database. It shows how data is organized and how they are related and associated among themselves.

Levels of schema

  • Conceptual level-information from the point of view by the users
  • Physical level-information with other details
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