Question 1)The communication between the gut and the brain is influenced by a variety of neural, immune, endocrine and humoral signals. A.Discuss how gut-derived peptides/hormones modulate neural circuits underlying energy homeostasis and cognitive function? B.What are the potential routes and mechanisms of gut microbes regulating the brain-gut axis? Question 2) Different types of external and internal stimuli can be sensed and perceived by distinct sensory systems in the body. A.How do sensory systems that are responsible for vision, hearing, balance, and nociception, convert specific stimuli into electrical signals? How are visual and auditory signals integrated in the brain? B.What are the major challenges and potential approaches to treat neurosensory degeneration in the retina and cochlea? Question3) Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complicated disease.A.Motivate this statement from the clinical, cellular and molecular levels.B.Further discuss the evidence revealing that the immunological response to TBI can be both beneficial and pathogenic. View Less >>
The main types of dietary fibers which are essentially found in many fruits and vegetables is attracting more and more attention day by day as they provide numerous metabolic benefits to our body that results in moderating the weight of the body (Eikelenboom-Boskamp et al. 2019).The short-chain fatty acids (For E.g.: propionate and butyrate) which are produced through the process of fermentation occurring in the intestine region by the intestinal macrobiotic, was previously believed to be the main mediators of these beneficial aspects. In recent studies, the fatty acids, propionate, and butyrate were shown to activate the intestinal process of gluconeogenesis. Succinate, which is the precursor of propionate, found in the metabolism-related processes of bacteria, also exerts many kinds of signaling properties, which include the activation of the intestinal gluconeogenesis. The hormonal signals that the gut region of the body imposes to releases in blood in response to certain kinds of nutrient assimilations (Skidmore-Roth, 2019). This modulates the hunger sensations and the homeostasis of the glucose. Get solution

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