Type 1 diabetes homework help

Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. It is a chronic condition whereby the pancreas is not able to produce enough or any insulin at all. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to allow sugar (glucose) to enter the cells to produce energy.

Type 1 diabetes homework help

Type 1 diabetes homework help

Causes of type 1 diabetes covered in our type 1 diabetes homework help

Type 1 diabetes is a result autoimmune reaction in the body whereby the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas instead of fighting infections. Scientists think this kind of reaction can be genetic or can be brought about by environmental factors such as viruses, which might trigger the disease.

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 What are the risk factors leading to 1 type diabetes?

Some of the known risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

  • Genetics- Some genes are at a high risk of type 1 diabetes than others.
  • Family history- Families with a family member who has type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of developing this condition.
  • Age: Type 1 diabetes appears at any age. However, it can appear in two noticeable peaks. The first peak can appear in children between 4 to 7 years while the second appears between 10 to 14 years.
  • Geographical location: As you travel away from the equator you become more susceptible to type 1 diabetes.
  • Viral infections: certain viral infections may trigger development of type 1 diabetes causing the immune system to turn against the body. Such viruses include Coxsackie, and German measles.
  • Other autoimmune conditions- autoimmune conditions that cause the immune system to turn against the body can trigger type 1 diabetes. These autoimmune disorders include; Grave’s disease and multiple sclerosis.
  • Race/ethnicity- certain ethnicities have a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes than others. Caucasians based in the USA have a higher risk than African-Americans.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes covered in our type 1 diabetes homework help

Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include:

  • Hunger and fatigue- in cases whereby the body doesn’t make enough insulin or the cells resist the insulin in your body, glucose can’t get into them. You, therefore, end up hungrier, weak and tired.
  • Peeing more often and being thirstier- As for people with diabetes their bodies reabsorb glucose as it passes through the kidneys. When diabetes pushes the blood sugar up, the kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in hence causing the kidneys to make more urine.
  • Dry mouth and itchy skin- because the body is using almost all the water to make pee there is less moisture for other things. This leads to dehydration which causes dryness in the mouth and itchy skin.
  • Blurred vision- changing fluid levels in the body can make the lenses in the eyes swell up which causes them to change shape hence cannot focus properly.
  • Unplanned weight loss- in people with diabetes, their body cannot energy from food. This causes the body to burn the muscles and store fat instead, hence causing weight loss.
  • Nausea and vomiting- when the body resorts to burning fat, it makes ketones. Ketones make you sick to the stomach which may cause nausea and vomiting.

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What are the complications associated with type 1 diabetes?

A diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that is a result of diabetes complications causing unconsciousness. Dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma.

A diabetic coma is caused by severe dehydration, very high glucose levels and very low glucose levels in the blood.

Hyperglycemia or high glucose levels in the blood can be caused by an infection such as pneumonia, flu, forgotten medication for diabetes, or in case one forgets to take insulin.

Risk factors for diabetic coma include:

  • An illness, trauma, or surgery- when you are injured, blood sugar levels tend to rise. This may cause diabetic ketoacidosis in case you have type1 diabetes and you fail to add your insulin dosage to compensate.
  • Insulin delivery problems- patients on an insulin pump have to keep checking their insulin levels frequently. In the scenario whereby the pump fails or the tubing or catheter gets twisted or falls out of place, lack of insulin can lead to diabetic coma.
  • Poorly managed diabetes- failure to take drugs properly, monitor blood sugar can have a risk of developing long-term complications and even diabetic coma.
  • Drinking alcohol- alcohol may cause unpredictable effects on blood sugar levels. Alcohol also causes a sedating effect which makes it hard to know when you are having low blood sugar symptoms, therefore increasing the risk for hypoglycemia.
  • Deliberately skipping meals or insulin- people with diabetes who also have an eating disorder choose not to use their insulin as directed with the hope of losing weight. This is a dangerous practice life-threatening practice that increases the risk of diabetic coma.
  • Illegal drug use- cocaine and ecstasy can increase the risk of severe high blood sugar levels and other conditions leading to diabetic coma.

Complications of type 1 diabetes can affect major organs in the body including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. It is important to maintain a normal blood sugar level to avoid the risk of complications.  Complications related to diabetes can be disabling or life-threatening. They include:

  • Nerve damage(neuropathy): Excess sugar causes damage to blood capillaries that nourish the nerves, especially in the legs. This causes tingling, numbness, or pain that normally begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar can cause complete loss of sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
  • Heart and blood vessel disease: High blood sugar levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease which includes coronary artery disease, stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis.
  • Kidney damage (nephropathy): Diabetes causes damage to tiny blood vessel clusters in the kidneys that filter waste from the bloodstream. Diabetes causes damage to this delicate filtering system leading to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease which requires dialysis or kidney transplant.
  • Eye damage: Diabetes affects the blood capillaries of the retina potentially causing blindness. It can also cause conditions like cataracts or glaucoma.
  • Foot damage: Poor blood flow to the feet or damage increases the risk of foot damage. Untreated cuts or blisters can cause serious infections which can lead to amputation.
  • Pregnancy complications: High blood sugar levels in pregnant mothers can cause miscarriages, stillbirth, and birth defects in unborn children.
  • Skin and mouth infections: Diabetes leads to a high risk of bacterial and fungal infections of the mouth and the skin, gum disease and dry mouth.

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How to prevent type 1 diabetes covered in our type 1 diabetes homework help

There is no known way of preventing type 1 diabetes. Researchers are working towards preventing further damage of the islet cells in people newly diagnosed. However, embracing a healthy lifestyle can help lower the risk of type 1 diabetes even in the case of a family history of diabetes. Even with prediabetes, lifestyle changes can slow or stop progression to type 1 diabetes.

A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Eating healthy foods- choosing foods lower in fats and calories, higher in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can lower the risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Engaging in regular physical activity- engaging in physical activity for more than 30 minutes like running, swimming, taking a brisk walk, aerobics and cycling can help to utilize the sugar hence; lowering blood sugar levels in the bloodstream.
  • Losing weight- losing a reasonable amount can delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes.
  • Avoiding being inactive for long periods- Sitting still or lying down for long hours can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Instead, try [getting up every 3o minutes and taking a walk every few minutes.
  • Cutting on the consumption of sugary foods and carbohydrates from your diet can help lower the levels of sugar in your bloodstream.
  • Quit smoking- reducing or quitting tobacco smoking can help to lower the risk for type 1 diabetes.
  • Taking plenty of water helps to dilute the amount of sugar in the bloodstream hence bringing down the blood sugar levels.
  • Watching your portions- eating large amounts of food can suddenly raise blood sugar levels in the bloodstream.

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Conclusion:

Type 1 diabetes is a disease that has no cure.  However, if diagnosed early it can be managed with the right medication, regular exercise, and a proper diet. If not properly managed type 1 diabetes can cause life-threatening complications such as kidney failure, heart disease, pregnancy complications among others.

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Type 1 diabetes homework help

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