Autism in Children Assignment Experts

What is Autism?

Autism is the term used to describe a number of conditions associated with difficulties in social skills, nonverbal communication, speech, and repetitive behaviors. There are several subtypes of autism.

Autism in Children Assignment Experts

Autism in Children Assignment Experts

The subtypes of autism are dependent on a combination of environmental factors and genetics. Autism is a broad disorder and each subtype is characterized by different strengths and weaknesses. Autism is different in people.

The ability of people with autism to think, learn and solve problems can range from severely challenged to highly skilled. Some people with autism cannot live an independent life and will require support from family and friends.

Other autistic people may not need as much support and can live independently. The development of autism is determined by several factors in combination with medical issues and sensory sensitivities.

Medical conditions that may affect the development of autism include seizures, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal disorders. Mental health issues such as attention issues, anxiety, and depression may also influence its development.

Signs of autism appear before a child is 3 years. However, in some cases, they may appear as early as 18 months.

Levels of Autism

According to its diagnostic criteria, there are 3 levels of autism. These levels are defined and differentiated by the amount of supporting the person with autism needs. These levels are:

  • Level 1 – people with level 1 autism will
  • have a hard time initiating social interactions
  • show little or no interest in social activities or social interactions
  • have a hard time making friends
  • have difficulty adapting to changes in behavior or routine
  • can live on their own with little or no support
  • have a hard time maintaining a back-and-forth conversation
  • have trouble with appropriate communication in terms of controlling their tone of speech, volume, reading social cues, and body language.
  • Level 2 – people with level 2 autism will
  • have repetitive behaviors that are likely to interfere with their daily life
  • have difficulty coping with changes in surrounding or routine
  • have severe and obvious behavioral challenges
  • require daily support of family and friends
  • have a significant lack of verbal and nonverbal communication skills.
  • have limited and specific interests
  • have unusual or reduced ability to interact with others or communicate
  • level 3 – people with level 3 autism will
  • require daily support
  • have a significant verbal or verbal impairment
  • have very limited desire to socialize or participate in social interactions
  • have difficulty changing their attention or focus
  • have limited ability to communicate
  • have fixed interests, repetitive behavior or obsessions
  • have difficulties coping with changes in environment or routine.

 

Signs of Autism in Children

Signs of autism in children can be classified into the following;

  • Autism in young children – signs of autism in young children are;
  1. avoiding eye contact
  2. getting upset if they do not like a certain smell, taste, or sound
  • not responding to their name
  1. not talking as much as other children
  2. not smiling back
  3. repeating the same phrases
  • repetitive movements such as flicking fingers, flapping hands, and rocking the body
  • Autism in older children- signs of autism in older children include;
  1. having a hard time making friends
  2. liking a strict daily routine and getting very upset if it is changed.
  • not seem to understand what others are thinking or feeling
  1. getting very upset if you asked to do something
  2. having a very keen interest in certain activities or subjects
  3. finding it hard to express how they feel
  • taking things very literally.
  • Autism in girls and boys

Signs of autism in girls and boys can be different. Girls with autism tend to hide their feelings, appear to cope better with situations, and be quieter. Autism is believed to be more difficult for girls compared to boys.

How to Spot Signs of Autism in Children

Treatment for autism that begins early enough is likely to bear fruits compared to delayed treatment. This is why it is important to know how to identify signs of autism. Parents are advised to seek the guidance of a pediatrician if their children do not meet the following developmental milestones:

  1. Plays “make-believe” or pretend by 18 months
  2. smiles by 6 months
  • gestures by 14 months
  1. coos or babbles by 12 months
  2. imitate sounds or facial expressions by 9 months
  3. speaks with single words by 16 months and uses two-word phrases or more by 24 months.

How does Autism affect Communication in Children?

A large number of children with autism do not talk at all while some develop language skills although they lose them later in life while the rest may start talking much later in life. Communication problems in autistic children include:

  1. problems with pronouns
  2. delayed speech and language skills
  • repeating the same phrase over and over
  1. flat robotic speaking voice or singsong voice
  2. rarely using common gestures and not responding to them
  3. not recognizing sarcasm or jokes
  • problems with pronouns
  • inability to stay on topic when talking or answering questions
  1. trouble expressing emotions or needs
  2. not getting signals from body language, tone of voice, and expressions.

Diagnosis of Autism in Children

Autism cannot be diagnosed with a single imaging test or blood. Children with autism are diagnosed by monitoring their development and observing their behavior. During diagnosis, doctors ask questions about the behavior of the child to assess if they meet the developmental milestones.

Signs of autism in toddlers can be easily recognized by playing with toddlers. Examinations done by doctors include screening for vision and hearing and medical tests. It is important if autism is diagnosed early enough in order to achieve suitable outcomes.

Autism in children is diagnosed by specialists such as child psychiatrists, child neurologists, developmental pediatricians, and child psychologists.

Treatment Options for Children with Autism

  1. Behavioral Intervention (Applied Behavioral Analysis) – Applied behavioral therapies put emphasis on reinforcing behaviors that form skill development. Complex behaviors are broken into small tasks.

Applied behavioral analysis helps develop daily life skills, promote the social development of the child, and redirect harmful behaviors such as self-injury. Behavioral interventions built on applied behavioral analysis include early intensive behavioral intervention, naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions, pivotal response training, Lovaas therapy, and discrete trial teaching.

  1. Speech Therapy – people with autism have problems with social communication therefore they need speech therapy. If done by a professional speech-language pathologist, a person/child can improve their communication skills. This helps them to express their wants and needs more effectively.

Speech-language pathologists should work with families, teachers, support personnel, and the child’s peers to be able to achieve speech therapy that will enable effective communication.

During speech therapy, it is important to help the child achieve functional communication in a natural setting to help them express themselves. Autism may cause some children not to have any nonverbal communication or deny them the ability to develop verbal communication skills.

For such children, it is important to use sign language, picture communication programs, and gestures to help them improve their ability to communicate efficiently. This way, the children do not feel left out.

  1. Occupational Therapy – occupational therapy is used to treat the motor deficits and sensory integration related to autism disorder. Some of the ways occupational therapy can help children with autism include teaching them life skills. For instance, children with autism can learn to use utensils, dress themselves, write and cut with scissors. Occupational therapy can help a child improve their ability to participate in daily activities like other children and improve their quality of life. Occupational therapy programs are different. The type of occupational therapy chosen depends on the goals and evaluations of the patient.

Occupational therapy for children with autism majors on sensorimotor issues and sensory integration. In older children, it focuses on teaching them motor skills such as writing, improving their independence, and their social behavior.

  1. Physical Therapy – physical therapy is the treatment used to enhance sensory integration issues and enhance gross motor skills, especially those that involve the ability of the child to be aware of their body in space and to feel themselves.

Physical therapy has the same goal as occupational therapy. The main goal of physical therapy is to enhance the ability of the child to participate in everyday activities. Physical therapy treatment teaches and improves the skills of the child such as coordination and balance which then helps them to sit and walk. Physical therapy usually yields desired outcome if it is used in combination with early intervention programs.

Conclusion

Autism can be defined as a set of conditions that are linked to difficulties in speech, social skills, repetitive behavior, and nonverbal communication. Diagnosis of autism is a little difficult since no single test can be done to diagnose the condition.

Treatment options for autism are physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and behavioral intervention.

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Autism in Children Assignment Experts

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