Disease control and prevention initiatives homework help

Disease control and prevention initiatives homework help

Disease control and prevention are programs that focus on keeping people healthy. These programs aim to empower and engage individuals and communities to choose healthy behaviors and adopt changes that can be beneficial to their lives. The choice of healthy behaviors helps to reduce the risk of developing chronic illnesses and other morbidities.

Disease control and prevention initiatives homework help

Disease control and prevention initiatives homework help

Disease control is a deliberate effort to reduce disease incidence, morbidity, prevalence, and mortality to an acceptable level. This requires continued intervention measures to maintain the reduction.

Disease prevention is a procedure of treating people, particularly those with risk factors for a disease to prevent that disease from occurring. Treatment begins before the signs and symptoms of the disease occur or shortly after.

Disease prevention strategies

Disease prevention strategies include:

  • Primordial prevention- it consists of risk factor reduction which is normally targeted to the entire population by focusing on environmental conditions. Such measures are usually promoted through laws and national policies. This form of preventive measure is mostly focused on children to decrease as much risk as possible. This strategy targets the underlying stage of natural disease by targeting the underlying social conditions that may increase the onset of the disease. Includes policies like government policy on cigarettes.
  • Primary prevention- this strategy consists of measures aimed at susceptible individuals or populations. The major purpose of this strategy is to prevent a disease from ever occurring. It, therefore, targets increasing the immunity of the persons at risk to prevent the disease from progressing in a susceptible individual to subclinical disease. Examples of primary prevention include immunizations.
  • Secondary prevention- it emphasizes early disease detection which targets healthy-looking individuals with sub-clinical forms of the disease. Subclinical diseases consist of pathologic changes with no symptoms diagnosable by the doctor. Secondary prevention occurs in form of screenings e.g., breast cancer screening or pap smear which helps diagnose cervical cancer in its subclinical state before it has progressed.
  • Tertiary prevention- it targets the clinical and outcome stages of a disease. It is normally implemented on symptomatic patients and aims to reduce the severity of the disease as well as the associated sequelae. Forms of tertiary prevention include rehabilitation efforts. Examples include diabetic foot care and cardiac rehab in post-myocardial infarction patients.
  • Quaternary prevention- this is the action taken to identify the patients who are at risk of overmedicalization to protect them from medical invasion. It also endeavors to suggest patients ethically acceptable interventions. This strategy is also considered as the action taken to protect individuals from medical interventions that are likely to cause more harm than good. Includes medically unexplained symptoms, and bodily distress syndrome.

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Strategies for disease prevention and control

The basic strategies for disease prevention and control include:

  • Hand hygiene- hand washing is the basic tool for reducing healthcare-associated infections. It is one of the simplest ways of preventing the spread of infections and needs to be included in the culture of the -organization. Washing hands vigorously with soap and warm water for at least 20 minutes before drinking, eating, and between intervals of providing care for patients can overwhelmingly help in disease prevention.
  • Use gloves- healthcare workers need to wear gloves when coming into contact with blood and body fluids such as when changing sheets, emptying gloves, etc.
  • Using personal protection equipment (PPE)- personal protective equipment such as gowns, masks, and face shields should be readily available for medical staff use.
  • Disinfect and keep surfaces clean- every room in a healthcare facility should be cleaned thoroughly with a disinfectant in between patients to prevent accidental transmissions of infections as new patients are admitted.
  • Providing infection control education- healthcare staff members need to know how to identify infections to prevent their spread.
  • Respiratory and cough hygiene- this helps to reduce and prevent the risk of cross-transmission of respiratory illness and pathogens such as covid 19. It also involves coughing into your elbow and disposing of used tissues in the waste bin to minimize the spread of disease.
  • Safe management of equipment- all the equipment used for healthcare must be fit for its purpose. Medical practitioners should therefore assess their likely exposure to infection and ensure they wear PPE that provides enough protection.
  • Safe disposal of waste- wastes from healthcare facilities contain living micro-organisms or other toxins that have the potential to cause harm or infections. Such wastes need to be separated and segregated.
  • Use safe cooking practices- poor cooking practices give rise to food-borne illnesses. Microbes thrive on food items and more on foods kept at room temperature.
  • Practice safe sex- sexually transmitted infections are the most easily preventable diseases. By engaging in safe sex by using condoms, the spread of bacteria and viruses from one person to another can be prevented.

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The role of nurses in preventive healthcare


Nurses are tasked with improving the health of patients through evidence-based recommendations and also encouraging individuals to receive preventive healthcare. Their duties include:

  • Inspiring people to engage in healthy lifestyles so they can live longer lives
  • They encourage people to in regular exercises to combat heart diseases and hypertension, arthritis, stroke, diabetes, etc
  • Nurses encourage people to engage in physical exercises to be in good shape. Maintaining weight through exercise can help to avoid the risk of chronic illnesses.
  • They also encourage people to quit smoking as this can lead to lung cancer and other respiratory system diseases.
  • They work together with the patients to take control of existing diseases in their early stages. They also help in trying to modify the patients’ behavior to control or minimize the effects of a particular disease.
  • Preventive healthcare nurses teach people the importance of taking alcohol in moderation. They take time to explain to them the dangers of taking alcohol in excess which include liver cirrhosis, stroke, or high blood pressure, which increases the chances of disease prevention.

Examples of diseases that can be prevented through preventive healthcare


Such diseases include:

  • Obesity-  obesity is a major risk factor for cancer, heart disease, stroke, etc. to prevent obesity, individuals need to adhere to a regular exercise regimen to reduce weight and become healthy.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases- diseases such as HIV, syphilis, etc can be preventable with safe sex practices which include the use of condoms.
  • Malaria- genetically modified mosquitoes have been used in developing countries to control malaria.
  • Thrombosis –is a serious circulatory disease that affects travelers, elderly people undergoing surgery, and women taking contraceptives. Prevention of thrombosis includes exercise, pneumatic devices, embolism stockings, etc.
  • Cancer- is common in low- and middle-income countries due to exposure to carcinogens resulting from industrialization and globalization. Prevention of cancer is through early screenings and detections which lead to early treatments.
  • Heart disease- encouraging patients to engage in regular blood pressure checkups and cholesterol checkups can help in preventing high blood pressure from getting to high levels which can lead to stroke or heart attacks.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- it is a common lung disease that causes difficulty in breathing and progressively worsens over time.

Ways to prevent diseases


The following are ways to prevent diseases:

  • Making healthy food choices- it is good to avoid ultra-processed foods and eat homemade foods prepared with basic ingredients. Ultra-processed foods can cause inflammation which can later lead to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Ultra-processed foods include chips, white bread, donuts, cookies, granola or protein bars, breakfast cereals, soda, coffee creamers, milkshakes, and instant oatmeal.
  • Get your cholesterol levels checked- it is crucial to get your cholesterol levels checked. This is because your doctor can advise you on how to maintain healthy levels and help you how to lower your chances of heart disease and stroke.
  • Watching your blood pressure- it is good to get screened for blood pressure once in a while. Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for developing heart disease and stroke. Managing your weight, engaging in regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight can help manage hypertension.
  • Engaging in physical exercises- engaging in physical exercise regularly helps control chronic illnesses like diabetes, heart diseases, and hypertension. Walking for 30 to 60 minutes or doing exercises twice a thrice a day can be good for your health.
  • Watching your body mass- being overweight puts you at a higher risk of developing serious health problems like diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and breathing problems. You need to visit a healthcare provider so that you can have your weight taken and be given advice depending on your body mass index.
  • Managing blood sugar levels- for preventive health, it is good to cut down some foods like candy, sugary desserts, soda, and junk foods because they cause your blood sugar levels to rise. Eating a healthy diet can help to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.
  • Quitting smoking- smokers lose on average 10 years of life compared to non-smokers. Quitting smoking, therefore, helps to lower your risk of lung cancer and hypertension.
  • Get enough sleep- sleep has a huge effect on how we feel and it also restores us. A good sleep routine involves going to bed same time every day and waking same time every day. Daily exercise to improve sleep.
  • Go for health screenings and vaccinations- health screenings can save your life by catching cancers and other serious problems early. Early diagnosis means early treatment hence saving a life.

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Importance of disease control and prevention


Disease control and prevention have the following benefits:

  • Increased lifespan- benefits of disease prevention help to increase your lifespan. Going for early screenings can help to save your life and will also give you a good sense of your life. This helps in the prevention of cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases.
  • Enables you to pay less over time- preventive healthcare helps you to save money. It helps in lowering the long-term cost of disease management by catching the disease early and having it treated at a lower cost, otherwise waiting to fix a health issue makes medical bills go higher. Preventive healthcare also helps you to save money through health coverage which makes healthcare affordable.
  • Taking vaccinations- vaccines help in the prevention of infectious diseases like mumps, and measles. Covid 19, diphtheria, etc.
  • Living an active lifestyle- failure to exercise can cause your health to decline. On other hand, engaging in regular exercises can help you stay healthy.
  • Doctor’s recommendations- your doctor helps to give you’re the full scope of your health risks. Doctor’s recommendations are a valuable tool because they help in preventive care.
  • Controlling a problem- the importance of preventive care is that it helps in catching something early. Controlling the risk factors of an underlying issue cannot happen without preventive care.
  • Metric benefits of preventive care- continuous improvement of metrics and healthcare systems make for better treatment. The more people take advantage of preventive care the better these services are.
  • Preventive healthcare leads to improved quality of life
  • There is reduced absenteeism at workplaces which leads to customer satisfaction
  • There is increased satisfaction with healthcare because you can be treated and recover from other minor ailments unlike when you have a chronic illness.

Challenges facing disease prevention and control in rural areas

Many factors influence health in rural communities. Rural areas experience higher rates of mortality and disability than urban areas. Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancers, and chronic respiratory disease.

Challenges to accessing preventive healthcare in rural areas include:

  • High poverty levels which make it difficult for participants to pay for services
  • Low health literacy levels and shady perceptions of health
  • Both cultural and social norms surrounding health practices
  • Educational and linguistic disparities
  • Limited reliable and affordable transportation means
  • Unemployment and also unpredictable working hours
  • Abit Low population densities for program economies of scale coverage
  • Lack of availability of resources to assist personnel and lack of facilities to use
  • Lack of availability of healthy foods and physical activities.

Examples of health initiatives


Examples of health initiatives include the following:

The following health initiatives focus on addressing the health needs of minority and underserved populations. The health initiatives include the following:

  • Diabetes programs and research
  • HIV/AIDS by group
  • Childhood obesity research demonstration project
  • Health disparities in cancer
  • National minority health month (April)
  • Million hearts initiatives
  • President’s teen pregnancy preventive initiative
  • Reduce tobacco disparities
  • Reducing influenza vaccine disparities
  • Racial and ethical approaches to community health across the US
  • Tuberculosis
  • Youth violence prevention
  • Racial and ethnic approaches to community health across the US
  • Tuberculosis (TB) in specific populations

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Key components of disease prevention

The key components of disease prevention:

The local, individual, state and federal efforts have achieved some level of success in disease prevention and control although a more comprehensive effort would be useful in meeting the overall environmental health challenges that are facing the USA. The following activities and initiatives can lead to understanding and reducing the nation’s incidence of environmentally caused diseases:

  • Research- it is important to identify and support an environmental public health research agenda at the national level. This research would be helpful in terms of addressing knowledge gaps in suspected and emerging links between exposure to harmful environmental agents and health outcomes.
  • Awareness and education- it is important to inform and educate decision-makers, healthcare providers, public health practitioners, and individuals about science-based health prevention approaches that will have the greatest impact and benefits on public health.
  • Surveillance at all levels- there is a need to monitor risk areas or situations to determine the prevalence of environmentally-linked health outcomes. Begin by identifying state, national, or community environmental health issues, develop measures to track those issues, and implement widespread surveillance that can help identify relationships between environmental hazards and health concerns.
  • Carrying out health hazard evaluations at state and local levels-this involves carrying out health hazard assessments and implementing them as needed. There is also a need to respond to high-risk situations while identifying and quantifying hazardous agents to facilitate the reduction of exposure through the improvement of the public health system at the national state and local levels.
  • Enhancing and revitalizing the health system at all levels. there is a need to build and improve strategic partnerships and additional resources as well as collaboration with environmental regulatory agencies in the development of a competent and effective workforce.
  • Proactive behavior by individuals- there is a need to make healthy choices by choosing environmentally-friendly products and services and trying to minimize the environmental impact of your community. Being informed about issues and becoming proactive in prevention initiatives can be helpful in the prevention and control of illness and diseases.



The provision of preventive healthcare is an important tool for reducing causes of death, disability, and disease. Investing in prevention measures and devotion to cures can raise a population’s well-being. In medical resource allocation, preventive and curative health services become competitive although both healthcare services are complimentary for enhancing health status.

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