Depression is one of the mental illnesses. Over 5% of adults globally suffer from depression at one point in their life. A key characteristic of depression is persistent sadness and a sudden loss of pleasure and interest in things and activities that were previously enjoyable and rewarding.
Depression is caused by complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors. Life events like loss, childhood adversities, and unemployment can cause or increase the chances of someone developing depression.
Depression can be treated by the use of pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, support services and treatment for depression in low- and middle-income countries are underdeveloped or unavailable. Over 70% of people suffering from depression in these countries cannot receive treatment.
Depression affects several aspects of a person’s life. It affects their relationship with friends and family, their productivity at work, performance at school, and their ability to be involved in community activities.
Research indicates that there is a connection between depression and physical health. Depression affects people of all ages and economic statuses. However, women are more likely to suffer from depression compared to men.
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The main symptoms of depression are;
There are different types of depression that we cover at acemywork.com. They include:
This is the type of depression whereby a person feels depressed almost all the time. Symptoms of major depression are;
Major depression is usually diagnosed if a person has five or more of the mentioned symptoms for 2 or more weeks. Key symptoms are loss of interest and a depressed mood. Major depression manifests differently in different people.
Depending on how it makes a person feel, major depression can be:
Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression that lasts for 2 years or more. Persistent depressive disorder describes chronic major depression and dysthymia. Symptoms of persistent depressive disorder include;
Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. People suffering from this type of depression suffer from mood episodes, ranging from high energy to low or depressive moods. When in low moods, they usually suffer from symptoms of major depression.
This is a type of depression that occurs during a particular period of major depression, mostly in the winter season. It goes away with summer and spring. People suffering from this depression are put on antidepressants.
Symptoms of psychotic depression are the same as those of major depression. They include delusions, paranoia, and delusions.
This depression occurs in women either weeks or months after giving birth. Postpartum depression is also known as peripartum depression. However, 1 man in 10 experiences depression during the peripartum period.
This depression affects women and occurs at the beginning of the menstruation period. Symptoms may include feeling depressed, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, fatigue, trouble concentrating, feeling overwhelmed, and change in feeding and sleeping patterns.
This depression occurs as a result of the inability to manage a stressful event such loss of a loved one, job loss, or divorce. It can also be called stress response syndrome.
It is different from the usual persistent sadness of normal depression. It describes a specific pattern of symptoms of depression. Symptoms of depression include increased appetite, feeling of heaviness in legs and arms, increased sleep, and being oversensitive to normal criticism.
Several factors cause depression. They include:
Researchers have identified differences in the brains of people suffering from clinical depression and those without. People who have previously suffered from depression have a smaller hippocampus compared to people who have never suffered from depression.
Additionally, they have fewer serotonin receptors. However, it has not been established why this is so. Some scientists believe that people who suffer from depression are born with a smaller hippocampus.
Grief is a common response to loss. Grief can be caused by a loss in the form of loss of a job, death, loss of a pet, separation from a loved one, retirement, and divorce. Anyone can experience loss and grief.
However, not everyone who experiences loss and grief suffers from clinical depression. Depression is different from grief. Symptoms of depression include a feeling of low self-worth and esteem, suicide, and negative thoughts of the future. Grief is characterized by feeling empty and longing for a loved one.
Chronic pain interferes with a person’s sleep, productivity at work, relationships, and ability to exercise physically. These effects are likely to leave one feeling isolated, sad, and depressed.
chronic illness in some people leads to depression. Chronic illnesses that are likely to cause depression include heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, HIV and AIDS, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis.
Certain drugs can cause depression in certain people. Medications such as acne isotretinoin, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines have been linked to some cases of depression. Medications used to control blood pressure are also linked to depression.
Sometimes depression can run in the family suggesting that there is some link between genetics and depression. No single gene is responsible for depression but rather several genes that contribute small effects that lead to depression when they interact with their environment.
Depression is a form of mental illness. Several factors such as age, gender, loss, substance abuse to name but a few, are the causes of depression. There are different types of depression each with its unique treatment. If properly diagnosed and treated, people with depression can recover and go back to their normal lives.
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