Clinical cardiology innovations homework help

 

Cardiovascular disease remains a major challenge in healthcare which has been made worse by the large aging population, a drastic rise in cardiometabolic conditions, and a generally poor lifestyle. Against a skyrocketing healthcare cost, there is still a high demand for new and innovative solutions that will help in making diagnoses, treatment, and enhancing quality care.

Clinical cardiology innovations homework help

Clinical cardiology innovations homework help

Cardiac care has been transforming over the years with the use of technology. Armed with artificial intelligence and machine learning, cardiac care professionals have who have the right technology skills have received the right assistance in the treatment methods.

Heart disease and benefits of technology

New technology innovations especially the imaging technique known as the heart flow have allowed physicians to easily determine if a patient needs an invasive procedure to clear blocked arteries. In most cases, a non-invasive treatment like medication is more viable. These kinds of developments have greatly contributed to a reduction in the number of deaths from heart-related diseases and led to improvements in the quality of life.

Types of cardiovascular diseases

They include:

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Heart valve disease
  • Disease of the heart muscle
  • Heart infection

 

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

The symptoms include:

  • Chest pain/ squeezing/ discomfort which may worsen with activity or emotional stress
  • Discomfort in the jaw, neck, left arm, lower back, or abdomen together with chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue and feeling weak

 

Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)

The symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Sweating
  • Anxiety
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Fainting or near fainting

Congenital heart disease (a condition that one is born with)

Symptoms include:

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Swelling of the legs, tummy, and around the eyes
  • A blue tinge on the skin or lips
  • Tiredness and rapid breathing while the baby is feeding.

Heart valve disease

Symptoms include:

  • Chest pain.
  • Palpitations caused by irregular heartbeats.
  • Low or high blood pressure, depending on which valve disease is present.
  • Shortness of breath.

Heart infection

symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Weakness or fatigue.
  • Swelling in your legs or abdomen.
  • Changes in your heart rhythm.
  • Dry or persistent cough.
  • Skin rashes or unusual spots.

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Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

 

They can be divided into two:

  • Those that can be changed
  • Those that cannot be changed

Those that cannot be changed include:

  • Sex – the risk of cardiovascular disease affects some women differently from others due to different levels of estrogen levels. However, women with diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than men.
  • Age – the risk of getting heart disease increases as you age. Women 55 years and above and men 45 years and above are at a higher risk of getting cardiovascular disease.
  • Family history – In case you have had a close family member who had heart disease at an early age you are at risk of getting heart disease.
  • Race – some groups are at a higher risk of getting heart diseases than others. For example, East Asians have lower rates of getting heart diseases compared to South Asians, African Americans are at a higher risk of getting heart disease compared to white Americans.

Those that can be changed include:

  • Managing stress – it raises blood pressure which in turn can lead to a heart attack. Stress coping mechanisms such as overeating, taking alcohol, drugs, and smoking can be a trigger heart disease. Instead focus on better ways of dealing with stress such as listening to music, exercising, and meditation.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight – being overweight increases the risk for heart disease. This is because it leads to high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels which are also contributing factors to heart disease.
  • Quit smoking – it raises high blood pressure hence leading to heart attack and stroke.
  • Regular exercise – helps in lowering blood pressure, improves circulation, maintains a healthy weight, and lowers cholesterol levels which lower the risk of heart disease.
  • Controlling blood pressure – high blood pressure is a major cause of heart disease. A regular checkup can help you maintain a proper blood pressure reading.
  • Healthy diet – avoid foods high in sodium and added sugars as they can lead to weight gain and high blood pressure. Instead, eat a lot of fruits and vegetables.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight- this helps to lower the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and other diseases which are also contributing factors to cardiovascular diseases.
  • Getting regular heart screenings can help detect early symptoms of cardiovascular disease which can lead to early management of the disease.

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Ways in which digital technology is transforming cardiac care

The cardiac world has been transformed over the years with new treatments leading to high survival rates. Digital technology has brought more developments in cardiology healthcare. This has enabled patients to receive closer-to-home treatment and doctors can detect cardiovascular diseases earlier. The following are ways in which digital technology has changed cardiac care:

  • Saving a life with relevant data- the digital transformation is helping save a life by understanding data in a strategic way which include cardiac registries that record real-time data. Performance outcome metrics and analytics have helped medical professionals and researchers to better understand death prevention from heart disease.
  • Monitoring and preventing disease- introduction of wearable cardiac devices has brought the huge potential to cardiac care. Such devices monitor blood pressure, heart rates, and rhythm disturbances which enable patients to monitor their health hence reducing their risk of heart disease through exercise and eating a balanced diet.
  • Personalized data and targeted treatments- genomics is the study of DNA codes within genomes which promises a new world for targeted treatments and early disease detection. Cardiac genomics has helped to identify people with a genetic predisposition to heart disease and helped them to prevent it from occurring in the future.
  • The use of telemedicine- such kind of technology helps people with chronic cardiac illnesses to stay in their homes instead of the hospital hence reducing admissions and the cost of care. This also enables health care workers to use a more proactive approach in managing people with heart failure disease. Telemedicine is used to monitor arrhythmias which allows people to go about their daily life instead of staying in a hospital bed.
  • Dealing with emergencies- digital transformation is also helping in dealing with cardiac emergencies. These come in mobile phone apps that can instruct the public on how to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation during an emergency hence potentially saving lives.

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What is the latest cardiology technology?

The latest cardiology devices in cardiac care include:

  • Miniature ventricular assist device- this device has improved the care of patients with advanced heart failure. It can prolong the patient’s life in cases where a donor’s heart has not been found. Shortly, this device will decrease in size, improve battery reliability, and wireless connectivity hence making the device unnoticeable hence decreasing the patient’s susceptibility to infections.
  • Organ conformal electronics- these are flexible stretchy electronic devices that can diagnose and treat tissue malfunctions. They have high spatiotemporal resolutions which are comprised of a system of various sensors and transducers which access multiple parameters to monitor and regulate cardiac tissue functions by following the shape of the epicardium.
  • Novel embolic protection to prevent strokes- the leading cause of stroke is atrial fibrillation which also is associated with devastating health consequences such as even death. Over the years this device has evolved. Newer devices have been designed for continuous embolic filtration at the aortic pathway. Such an approach is currently being tested and might be in near future be available for patients with increased bleeding risks.
  • Cardiac decellularization and engineered heart tissue- these are promising new approaches to treat heart disease by using tissue engineering techniques that use cells and regenerative medicine. In this technique, cells and appropriate growth factors are needed to enable the reconstruction of new tissue. In this case, a decellularized heart composed of the native intracellular matrix can provide a complex and natural scaffold that can offer the physical and chemical signals required for proper cardiac function.
  • Mitral valve modulation and repair- such technologies have the potential to become alternatives for surgery for some patients. These devices are usually differentiated according to part of the mitral valve they are meant to repair.
  • Engineered heart valves- the burden of congenital or acquired heart valve defects is high globally. This has led to the development of in-situ tissue engineering approaches. The use of synthetic, bioresorbable scaffolds might lead to individualized replacements for heart valves which might be less prone to infections and more suitable for pediatric patients.

 

factors influencing innovation in clinical cardiac care

 

  • Genetics- in the clinical management of cardiac arrhythmias, the impact of genetics is rapidly growing with a major interest in gene therapy, gene-specific therapy, and the role of modifier genes. In some cases, genotypic data is already integrated with patients’ electronic records which are meant to transform the way medicine is practiced by ensuring early detection and personalized pharmacological treatment.
  • Big data- it is a term used to describe the exploitation of the massive processing capabilities of fully integrated IT networks. Such networks may contain both medical and non-medical data which explains why big companies like google are now operational in the field. The combination of all these data will lead to better diagnosis, earlier detection of disease, and better follow-up of therapeutic effects. Data is a future enabler and a progress initiator in health research. This is because data-driven innovation enhances well-being while increasing productivity hence leading to positive financial results.
  • Personalized medicine- it is a fast-growing interest that focuses on specific requirements of the individual patient which is determined by a combination of modalities. the goal of personalized medicine is to enable tailored treatment for an individual patient which leads to better outcomes, lower exposure to risks, and lower costs.
  • Computer modeling- such models contain a multitude of properties of heart and circulation structures which are mechanical and electrophysiological. Available models range from very simple lumped parameters to complicated finite element models, monodomain, or bio-domain models.  Through the integration of all available information, models can give information out of clinical measurements while simulating different scenarios, hence aiding diagnosis and prediction of benefits of specific therapies.
  • Patient engagements- this changes the mindset from a traditional relationship between physician and patient to a partnership based on better sharing of information, common decision making, and enabling patients to be responsible for their health.

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Challenges facing clinical cardiac innovations

These challenges include:

  • A reduced commitment to clinical science- the number of qualified people who are willing to be involved in high-quality clinical research is small. This is because of the long time needed for post-graduate training of physicians, the limited number of training positions in medical academic centers, and also the existence of attractive career choices which bypass academic routes.
  • Basic science prioritization- basic science is important because it forms the basis for major clinical developments thus fueling innovation. Research in the clinical arena has evolved and redefined considerably over the last many years which has been scarcely been the case in basic science which has left the door open to bias. Investment in the education of research methodology together with a shift in the attitude of funders is needed to overcome obstacles to true innovation.
  • Patents- although patents and other intellectual property play an important role in innovations by protecting innovators’ rights and making innovation worthwhile, things like treatment methods and software algorithms are not readily patentable. Patents can be expensive to obtain and time-consuming because the patent process takes several years.
  • Big data- although the use of big data appears to be very promising things like the initiation of the innovative process cannot be realized until major concerns about privacy, confidentiality, access rights, and data ownership are addressed. At the moment, there is a vague legal framework that causes potential problems for the large-scale exploitation of big data.
  • Market access- the high costs and end-to-end regulatory approval beset the pharmaceutical and device industries. This delays investment decisions even when there is a need for new therapies. In the cardiovascular field, increasing development costs are a significant cause of the problem. The cost of introducing a new drug into the market has become very expensive. Value for money considerations through health technology considerations has compounded things like quality, safety, and market access.
  • Clinical trials- clinical trials have been made more costly and administratively cumbersome by the current regulatory framework. The requirements in place for designing clinical trials have also become more stringent.
  • Lack of ways for timely investment – small startup companies and entrepreneurs often incubate disruptive innovations. Long regulatory delays and lack of timely patent grants strain the cash flow hence shifting the attraction point of significant investment.

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What is the future for cardiology innovations?

 

  • Expansion of catheter-based interventions for all areas of the body- this will help in boosting interventional radiology and cardiac catheter lab volumes hence leading to a massive decrease in open surgeries.
  • Combining analytics software with artificial intelligence- this will help in managing healthcare by identifying setbacks and inefficiencies within processes. It will also help population health initiatives in identifying high-risk patients for screening programs and proactive awareness for checkup appointments.
  • A closer integration of computed tomography and echo imaging- will help in providing better pre-procedural planning and peri-procedural guidance.
  • Greater efforts and several new technologies to reduce radiation dose in CT and catheter lab angiography – this will include the use of ultrasound and transesophageal echo during procedures to eliminate the use of angiographic Y-rays. Instead, there will be an increase in the use of 3-D navigation aids which will use 3-D echo and also rotational angiography imaging to save time on procedure.
  • Greater emphasis on reducing staff radiation dose- this will include reduction of orthopedic problems as a result of wearing heavy lead aprons all day. New technologies will be adopted in the lab to better protect staff and real-time dose monitoring systems. This will also include the use of lightweight aprons and robotics to remove the physician from the radiation area.
  • The use of wearable technology will improve on monitoring of heart failure patients to prevent hospitalization.
  • Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation will improve greatly in terms of procedural success rates. This will reduce the time it takes to map and treat patients.
  • Because the payment system is costly, inefficient, and not sustainable for Medicare, healthcare reforms to convert the fee-for-service model to a fee-for-value model will continue.

Conclusion

 

Cardiology is a fertile ground for digital innovation because of its data-driven foundation and rapidly expanding digital footprint. ML nard ER are two technologies that are leading in terms of innovative efforts. Although their use in cardiology is in its initial stages, each of them is showing early promise. It is therefore easy to envision a future in which these 2 technologies can be combined to yield exponential dividends to patients, physicians, and other teams.

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