Food and Security Paper 1

The topic should be food security and health,not food security and insecurity.
Could u help to revise it as the customer is in a hurry to get it and i can’t contact with the writer now. 

Food security and insecurity

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Introduction

Food security is defined as the availability of food and the ability of an individual or access that food. Accessibility, in this case, covers a wider spectrum encompassing the individuals physical and financial ability to access the food (Measure, 2019). In 1996, the World Food Summit defined food security as a situation whereby all people have convenient access to adequate, nutritious and safe food all the time to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle.

On the other hand, food insecurity refers to a situation where one has no access to adequate food or has no access to food at all. In addition, food insecurity encompasses access to food that is not safe for human consumption as such kind of food risks human health just as much the lack of food itself.

Situation

Food security differs from one country to another and so does food insecurity. This section compares two countries Singapore and Canada. On the one hand, Singapore is considered to be one of the most food secure countries in the world having been ranked second after the United Sates in a 2015 Global Food Security Index. Notably, Singapore’s food security is largely a product of applications of innovative technologies such as Hydroponics.

On the other hand, Canada is faced with serious food insecurity issues especially considering that a recent survey showed that 1 out of 8 households in the country is food insecure. Food insecurity in Canada is largely linked to poverty in the country. This extent of food insecurity results in high cases of malnutrition and malnourishment which drives up the cost of healthcare. Philippines on the other hand could face food shortage problems in the coming years due to water shortages (Measure, 2019).

The issue of food security has evolved into a global predicament for a number of reasons. First, lack of food or lack of healthy food has adverse implications in people’s health, labor force and productivity which effectively hinders economic growth. What this means, therefore, is that countries stricken by extreme cases of food insecurity have to rely on other countries for instance through the United Nations for food assistance.

On the other hand, a study by the World Health Organization revealed that about 1 billion people across the globe suffer from undernourishment and starvation while about 1.6 billion people suffer from obesity and overeating. This scenario indicates an extreme disparity in food distribution a disparity that can only be resolved by addressing food security from a global point of view if problems associated with food insecurity are to be resolved.

Problems

There are a number of problems that arise from food insecurity, one of them being health and nutrition problems. a study conducted by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) revealed that almost half of the deaths of children below the age of 5 years result from malnutrition. Moreover, a case study by the American Public Health Association (APHA) revealed that about 150million children globally suffer from stunted growth due to malnutrition.

In addition to health issues, food insecurity reduces productivity since it affects the labor force. The consequence of this is poor economic growth and low output which results in lower incomes effectively maintaining the cycle of food insecurity. Sadly, individuals facing food insecurity issues are more likely to suffer from obesity and poor nutrition than those enjoying food security according to the Food Research & Action Center (FRAC) (Hartline-Grafton, 2018).

The rationale behind this is that limited resources to get adequate healthy food and lack of access to quality healthcare. Cases of obesity among these individuals is also likely to result from cycles of overeating and food deprivation. In addition, food insecurity is associated with high levels of stress, depression, and anxiety which are serious health concerns as well. so, what exactly is being done to avert these problems.

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Food and Security Paper

Solutions

Governments are taking initiatives to deal with the issue of food security in a number of ways including the establishment of enabling policies.  The government of Columbia, for instance, reviewed its agricultural policies to align these policies with multifunctional aspects of agriculture to help deal with issues of food security and facilitate sustainable development. The European Union, on the other hand, continues to promote sustainable agricultural technologies and practices which are focused on increasing food production and raise rural incomes.

Non-Government Organizations are allows taking initiatives to help deal with this issue. A Growing Culture, for instance, is a nonprofit organization that is working towards giving farmers more autonomy with the aim of stimulating agro-ecological innovations by boosting the farmers’ capacity for change. Food First, on the other hand, continues to educate people about food security with the objective of shifting focus to sustainable and effective food systems.

Private organizations have not been left behind either. Wal-Mart and Wal-Mart Foundation launched a $2 billion initiative called ‘Fighting Hunger Together’ that is aimed at combating hunger in the U.S (Gerholdt, 2014). DuPont, on the other hand, introduced 4,000 new products focused on increasing food productivity. Nonetheless, it is essential to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives to determine their sustainability.

Evaluation

The food security interventions have been successful in most countries even though they have not been effective in other countries. For instance, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) operating in Senegal acknowledge that the agribusiness initiatives aimed at solving food security concerns in the country had failed (Cadre de Concertation et de Coopération des Ruraux (CNCR), 2018). Thus they called for the provision of more support to peasant farmers in the country. This scenario points to the need for developing region or country specific solutions to combat hunger and food insecurity. From a global perspective, however, the improvements in combating food insecurity have been minimal.

The solutions implemented by the governments, NGO’s and companies can be said to be sustainable especially environmentally. However, one of the biggest sustainability challenges posed by these solutions is that most of them are being implemented in developed countries to guarantee continued food security. Unless effective measures are taken to tackle this issue, the initiatives to curb food insecurity could result in a food class system, where developed countries enjoy significant food security while developing countries continue to deal with food insecurity.

Conclusion

Food security is a major issue of concern whose gravity, if not addressed promptly, could have far-reaching implications from a global standpoint. developing regions such as Africa and South Asia are the most affected regions but initiatives are being implemented to help curb food insecurity. These initiatives are joint efforts between governments, NGOs and private companies. However, it is imperative to state that the ultimate solution to solve the issue of food insecurity will involve the input of every individual and emphasizing the need to eradicate this problem on various forums including campuses, government forums and creating awareness to the general public.

References

Gerholdt, J. (2014). How the private sector is tackling the global food security challenge? Retrieved from https://www.devex.com/news/how-the-private-sector-is-tackling-the-global-food-security-challenge-84042

HARTLINE-GRAFTON, H. (2018). The Impact of Food Insecurity on Health and Well-Being: A Conversation with Heather Hartline-Grafton, Dr.PH., R.D. – Food Research & Action Center. Retrieved from http://frac.org/blog/impact-food-insecurity-health-well-conversation-heather-hartline-grafton-dr-ph-r-d

Cadre de Concertation et de Coopération des Ruraux(CNCR). (2018). NGOs say initiative to improve food security in Africa through agribusiness has failed in Senegal; call for more support to peasans farmers esp. women | Business & Human Rights Resource Centre. Retrieved from https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/ngos-say-initiative-to-improve-food-security-in-africa-through-agribusiness-has-failed-in-senegal-call-for-more-support-to-peasants-farmers-esp-women

Measure, L. (2019). Water shortage may affect food security: Pinol. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=News&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=TopicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CA580780964&docType=Article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=ZGIN&prodId=GIC&contentSet=GALE%7CA580780964&topicId=OTNILA774682889&searchId=&userGroupName=61monash&inPS=true

Measure, L. (2019). Food Security. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=FeaturedContent&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=TopicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&docId=GALE%7CCX3727600307&docType=Topic+overview&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=9780028662138&prodId=GIC&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3727600307&topicId=OTNILA774682889&searchId=&userGroupName=61monash&inPS=true