Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Assignment Help

Acute coronary syndrome is a combination of medical conditions that are associated with the abrupt and reduced flow of blood to the heart. An example of such a condition is myocardial infarction also known as a heart attack.

Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Assignment Help

Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Assignment Help

A heart attack usually results in damaged and destroyed cells. However, a decrease in the flow of blood to the heart affects the functioning of the heart. Acute coronary syndrome is a sign of a high risk of a heart attack.

Acute coronary syndrome comes with severe discomfort or pain in the chest. Usually, the acute coronary syndrome is a medical emergency that needs urgent diagnosis and care. Treatment given for acute coronary syndrome is focused on improving the flow of blood to the heart, treating complications that may arise, and preventing problems in the future.

Acute coronary syndrome is caused by the accumulation of fatty acids in one or more walls of the coronary artery. This buildup of fatty acids causes blockage of the coronary artery. The blockage may be instant or sudden in addition to being seasonal.

The coronary artery delivers nutrients and oxygen to the muscles of the heart. Muscles found in the heart require a steady and consistent supply of blood that is oxygenated for them to function. Most cases of a blocked coronary artery are a result of blood clots.

The traditional types of acute coronary syndrome are unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation MI. The classification of acute coronary syndrome patients is mostly traditional mainly because the different types of acute coronary syndrome require different clinical management.

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Types of Acute Coronary Syndrome

Common types of the acute coronary syndrome are heart attacks and angina. The acute coronary syndrome can be described as a combination of three types of coronary artery disease including:

  • Non -ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (NSTEMI)
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (STEMI)
  • Unstable angina

A blocked coronary artery translates to a slow supply of oxygen to heart muscles causing the death of cells in the heart muscles. Lack of supply of blood to any tissue of the body is known as ischemia. Death of cells in the heart muscles may cause myocardial infarction or a heart attack.

Cells don’t always die. Sometimes they are damaged due to a lack of enough supply of oxygen. This prevents heart muscles from functioning efficiently resulting in temporary or permanent consequences.

When an acute coronary syndrome is not fatal it is known as unstable angina. The type of acute coronary syndrome is determined by where the blockage happens, the duration of the blocked blood flow, and the extent of damage caused.

Accurate classification of the acute coronary syndrome is important especially when it comes to picking the correct treatment. The acute coronary syndrome can be classified by doctors based on:

  • Symptoms
  • Electrocardiography results
  • Presence of certain substances in the blood that is released from the damaged heart.

Symptoms of Acute Coronary Syndrome

Symptoms of the acute coronary syndrome include:

  • Sweating
  • Chest discomfort or chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Feeling light-headed or dizzy
  • Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, neck, jaw, or stomach.

Symptoms of the acute coronary syndrome are serious. A person experiencing the symptoms mentioned above should seek emergency medical care. Chest pain associated with coronary syndrome is sudden. They come without a warning just like those of a heart attack.

Chest pain that is usually unpredictable and does not improve even after resting can be a symptom of unstable angina. The most common symptom of acute coronary syndrome is chest pains. However, it is important to note that the signs and symptoms differ depending on sex, age, and the existence of other medical conditions.

What are the Causes of Acute Coronary Syndrome

The common cause for the acute coronary syndrome is the buildup of fat deposits on and in the walls of coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood with nutrients and oxygen to the muscles of the heart.

When these fat deposits split or rupture, they form a blood clot. These blood clots hinder the flow of blood to the muscles of the heart. Reduced supply of oxygen results in the death of cells in the heart muscles.

This results in damage to the heart muscles and a possible heart attack. Cells may not always die. However, reduced oxygen supply still interferes with the functioning of the heart muscles.

Risk factors associated with acute coronary syndrome

Obesity and smoking are some of the key risk factors associated with the acute coronary syndrome. Other risk factors are:

  • Diabetes
  • Old age -women above 55 years and men above 45 years
  • High blood cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • lack of physical activity
  • COVID-19 infection
  • History of high blood pressure, diabetes, or preeclampsia during pregnancy.
  • Family history of stroke, heart disease, or chest pain
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Unhealthy diet

Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome

During diagnosis, a doctor will want to know your symptoms and medical history. In addition, several tests need to be performed. Some of the tests done in the diagnosis of the acute coronary syndrome are:

  • Blood tests – blood tests are done to look for the presence of enzymes in the blood. If the death of cells causes damage to the tissues of the heart, there will be a detectable amount of enzyme in the blood. A positive blood test for these enzymes means there could be a heart attack.
  • Cardiac perfusion scan – this is the scan used to show if the heart is receiving adequate blood and can also check which areas of the heart have been damaged as a result of a heart attack.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG) – This is the test that involves attaching electrodes to the skin to measure the electrical activity in the heart. Irregular or abnormal impulses are an indication that the heart is performing poorly probably because of a lack of oxygen. Some electrical signals may help locate blockages in the coronary arteries.

In combination with the signs and symptoms, information obtained from these tests is used by doctors to diagnose acute coronary syndrome. In addition, doctors can determine how the syndrome will be classified whether as unstable angina or as a heart attack.

Further tests can be done to weigh the need for additional treatment or if there are additional heart problems. In some cases, doctors may need the patient to wear a Holter monitor that is

used to record the electrical activity of the heart for 24 hours.

Once the diagnosis is made, treatment is ordered immediately. Short-term goals for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome are to improve the flow of blood to restore heart function and relieve pain.

Long-term goals for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome are to manage the risk factors, reduce the risk of a heart attack, and improve the overall functioning of the heart. Treatment for acute coronary syndrome includes a combination of surgeries and medications.

Medications used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome are:

  • Beta-blockers
  • Statins
  • Antiplatelet drugs
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

Once a person with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome calls the emergency services, they are given aspirin. If aspirin does not stop the problem to restore proper blood flow, stenting and angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery will be necessary.

Lifestyle changes for people who’ve had the acute coronary syndrome

Some of the recommended lifestyle changes include:

  • Eating a healthy diet – a healthy diet should include vegetables. Fruits, lean protein, and whole grains.
  • Not smoking tobacco – those who already smoke should seek counseling and medical care to help them quit smoking.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight – it is easy to maintain a healthy weight if a person exercises.
  • Drinking alcohol in moderation – increased alcohol consumption increases blood pressure.
  • Being physically active – regular exercising helps a person to stay physically fit. It is recommended that people should exercise for at least 2-3 hours every week.
  • Paying attention to medica numbers – it is important to have your blood pressure and cholesterol levels measured regularly. It is good to understand the optimum range of these numbers and what they mean.
  • People who have previously suffered a heart attack may be advised to take one baby aspirin in addition to their usual daily medication. Aspirin works to prevent the formation of clots by platelets to reduce the risk for another heart attack.

Conclusion

With a combination of the right medication and lifestyle changes, it is very much possible to prevent acute coronary syndrome. The two also go a long way to treat acute coronary syndrome and to help people resume their normal lives.

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Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Assignment Help

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